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By David Reed Greenwood; G L Kingsbury; J G Cleland; United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Research and Development

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C u r r e n t 12 2x ions/sec 12 x ions/sec Vo ta ' + + + + Bias Yoltage Meter The detector consists of a gas-filled chamber with two electrodes, a positive anode and a negative cathode. Ionizing radiation entering the chamber A3-2 CHAPTER A3 Current vs. Ionization The first figure shows two graphs for two different intensities of radiation. 7 mCi) might produce 12 1x10 ion pairs per second, and another source of 200 MBq produce ion pairs at twice that rate. Incoming Radiation + ion / 'd Fixed Volts : Current vs.

The electron and positron will orbit around a common centre of gravity, spiralling inward until they meet, when they annihilate each other. A2-4 CHAPTER A2 Positron · electron annihilation This is a classic example of matter meeting antimatter, and results in the total conversion of the mass of the two particles into energy in accordance with the equation E = mc2. 511 MeV of energy. The detection of these gamma rays forms the basis for positron emission tomography (PET). It should be noted that adequate lead shielding is required to shield positron emitting radionuclides.

E. 900 - 100 = 800 cpm. It can be shown that if N counts are collected in time t, then the standard deviation on the count rate (N/t) is given by a = N / t 2 . JNJTT Thus, the standard deviation on the sample count in the above example is as = 9 0 0 / 9 , and the standard deviation on the background count is ab = 3 0 0 / 9 . It can also be shown that the standard deviation on the difference (or the sum) of these two results is a = a 2s + a 2b . 3 cpm. 3% )900I9 )300I9 )a�+at )2700/9+300/9 References RP78 The Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Service of The Radiation Protection Bureau, Health and Welfare Canada, 79-EHD-27, December, 1978.

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