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By Brian Hollingsworth, Ray Bonds

An Illustrated advisor to trendy Trains

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Criminal gangs had such resources at their disposal that the forces of law were often powerless even in a direct confrontation. ” Even the king’s household were directly involved. ”72 The “banditization” of the nobility became even stronger when England plunged into the war. By 1357 mercenary armies, often led by nobles, accelerated their continuous plunder in France when the great push toward anarchy and the spread of banditry of all sorts probably took place. “With Jean II in captivity, France plunged into anarchy.

4 Only after the beginning of Augustus’s reign was some stability restored. Perhaps Augustus should be credited for the creation of the modern police force. ” It was centralized machinery that 24 THE RISE OF THE E A R LY M O D E R N S TAT E IN EUROPE included a centralized army maintained at the expense of the state that ensured the stability of order in the empire. “The key element in this police organization was the post of Praefectus Urbi, filled by appointment from the highest ranks of the Senate; who had responsibility for maintaining public order executively and judicially.

The Renaissance was marked by a splash of immorality manifested in various forms of antisocial behavior. “With the advent of the high Middle Ages and the ensuing renaissance. . ”34 Crime had been a sign of the melting of society, and the existence of state power was at stake. The crux of the problem was not social conflict between lower classes and the elite but conflict in the polarity of the state, the holistic order, and the criminalizing society. The criminals were neither defenders of the poor (in most cases) nor members of the elite who preyed on the downtrodden.

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