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By James Jeans

This booklet could be defined as a student's version of the author's Dynamical thought of Gases. it really is written, notwithstanding, with the desires of the scholar of physics and actual chemistry in brain, and people elements of which the curiosity used to be mostly mathematical were discarded. this doesn't suggest that the booklet comprises no severe mathematical dialogue; the dialogue specifically of the distribution legislation is kind of exact; yet mainly the maths is worried with the dialogue of specific phenomena instead of with the dialogue of basics.

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Example text

Thus one molecule bears the same relation to a breath of air as the latter does to the whole atmosphere of the earth. If we assume that the last breath of, say, Julius Caesar has by now become thoroughly scattered through the atmosphere, then the chances are that each of us inhales one molecule of it with every breath we take. c. of air, so that the chances are that in the lungs of each of us there are about five molecules from the last breath of Julius Caesar. * Phys. Rev. 4 (1914), p. 440. t Ann.

C. , A PRELIMINARY SURVEY 49 or 100,000 million km. In internebular space, where the density of gas may be as low as 10~29 gm. , or about 1000 light-years. Comparing the values just obtained for the length of the free path with those previously given for the velocity of motion, we find that the mean time of describing a free path is about 1-3 x 10~10 seconds in air under normal conditions, about 2 x 10~7 seconds in air at 0° C. at a pressure equal to that of half a millimetre of mercury, and about a thousand million years in internebular space—out here a molecule travels for a long while before meeting another!

Suppose next that two kinds of gas are mixed in the vessel, the mass and velocity-components of the molecules of the second kind being denoted by m", u", v"', w", and suppose further that both kinds of gas are at the same temperature as the vessel itself. Then there is no loss or gain of energy to the vessel through collisions with either kind of molecule, so that, in place of equation (10), we must have m^V7"2 = mu2 = mfu/2. , (11) Since the molecules will be moving in all directions equally, we also have mV 2 = m'w'2i = mV 2 , (12) and there are similar equations for the second kind of molecules.

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