By Koen Lampaert
Analog built-in circuits are vitally important as interfaces among the electronic components of built-in digital structures and the skin international. a wide section of the hassle interested in designing those circuits is spent within the format section. while the actual layout of electronic circuits is automatic to a wide volume, the structure of analog circuits continues to be a handbook, time-consuming and error-prone job. this can be almost always end result of the non-stop nature of analog indications, which factors analog circuit functionality to be very delicate to format parasitics. The parasitic components linked to interconnect wires reason loading and coupling results that degrade the frequency behaviour and the noise functionality of analog circuits. equipment mismatch and thermal results placed a primary restrict at the a possibility accuracy of circuits. For profitable automation of analog format, complex position and direction instruments which can deal with those serious parasitics are required.
long ago, computerized analog structure instruments attempted to optimize the structure with out quantifying the functionality degradation brought by means of structure parasitics. for that reason, it used to be no longer assured that the ensuing structure met the requirements and a number of format iterations may be wanted. In Analog format iteration for functionality andManufacturability, the authors suggest a functionality pushed format technique to triumph over this challenge. during this technique, the format instruments are pushed via functionality constraints, such that the ultimate format, with parasitic results, nonetheless satisfies the requirements of the circuit. The functionality degradation linked to an intermediate structure answer is evaluated at runtime utilizing predetermined sensitivities. against this with different functionality pushed structure methodologies, the instruments proposed during this ebook function without delay at the functionality constraints, with out an intermediate parasitic constraint iteration step. This method makes a whole and brilliant trade-off among the various structure choices attainable at runtime and consequently removes the prospective suggestions path among constraint derivation, placement and format extraction.
along with its impression at the functionality, format additionally has a profound influence at the yield and testability of an analog circuit. In AnalogLayout new release for functionality and Manufacturability, the authors define a brand new criterion to quantify the detectability of a fault and mix this with a yield version to judge the testability of an built-in circuit structure. They then combine this method with their functionality pushed routing set of rules to supply layouts that experience optimum manufacturability whereas nonetheless assembly their functionality requisites.
Analog structure new release for functionality and Manufacturability might be of curiosity to analog engineers, researchers and students.
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Additional info for Analog Layout Generation for Performance and Manufacturability
1(b» is to drive the layout tools directly by performance constraints, such that the final layout, with parasitic effects still satisfies the specifications of the circuit. 2 Problem Formulation In this section we will formally describe the performance driven layout generation problem. We will show how a set of performance specifications can be translated into a set of constraints on layout induced performance degradation, with the effect of process variations taken into account. A perfonnance characteristic P is a real number which quantifies some aspect of the performance of a circuit.
This can be explained by piezoresistive effects due to residual stresses induced into the silicon chip by packaging. It has been shown that this effect can significantly degrade the matching performance of MOS transistors [Bast 96c]. Layout structures with a 2-axial symmetry, like the common centroid structure, can be used to cancel out stress, process and thermal gradients in every direction. • Same Orientation Anisotropic process steps cause asymmetries in process parameters and the silicon substrate itself can be anisotropic.
Same Shape and Size Matching devices should have equal shapes and sizes. Matching transistor pairs should have the same number of fingers. For matching resistors, not only the number of squares should be equal but also the length, the width and the number of bends (see Fig. 10). • Common-centroid geometries Four different layout styles for a MOS transistor pair are shown in Fig. 11 : a finger structure (Fig. 11 (a», an interdigitated finger structure (Fig. 11 (b », a common-centroid structure (Fig.