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By John E. Hobbs

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The overall picture seems to be that aerosol trends are upward in most of Europe and the Soviet Union, where there has been increased industrialization and where pollution abatement efforts lagged, at least before the 1970s. In the USA, the UK and some other countries where vigorous pollution abatement efforts were well under way in the early 1960s, reduction seems to have approximately kept pace with the increased industrial activity. Over the open oceans increases have apparently been limited to regions immedi­ ately downwind of large population concentrations.

It seems reasonable to expect similar, or worse, situations in other, more industrialized parts of the world. Aerosol particles can both scatter and absorb sunlight, and they also absorb and re-emit infra-red radiation. When a non-absorbing particle scatters solar radiation some of the scattered radiation will be lost to space and some will be directed downward. The result is less sunlight reaching the Earth and an increase in the net albedo of the earth-atmosphere system, which would cause a net cooling.

Power stations Increased temperatures, precipitation modification, circulation modification Water vapour Combustion, Cooling towers Disturbance of radiation balance, particle formation Ammonia Waste treatment Particle formation Hydrocarbons Combustion, Chemical processes Particle formation Methane Chemical processes Stratospheric water vapour and ozone concentrations Peroxyacetylnitrates Oxidation of olefins from factory effluents Suspected but unknown Methyl bromide Agricultural fumigation Destruction of stratospheric ozone Krypton-85 Nuclear fuel reprocessing and power plants Modification of electric field, possible modification of precipitation processes Aerosols Combustion, Agriculture Temperature change, precipitation modification Recent measurements show a continuing increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide con­ centration (Fig.

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